Research Axis 1 is based around shifting social and spatial patterns against a backdrop of globalisation. While continuing to focus on key research themes, i.e., multi-dimensional (political, economic and social) and related multi-scale (macro-regionalisation, interaction between global/local) phenomena, our goal is to move towards studies of theoretical and pragmatic responses to the side-effects of globalisation (increasing inequality, financial crises, food crises, extension of "war zones"). The key issue is understanding and describing the processes that contribute to building these responses with a dual purpose in mind. The first is theoretical and comprises a critical analysis of globalisation approaches and practices. This involves testing the assumption whereby we are witnessing a change in the global system that transcends the notion of territory and region. The second draws upon empirical studies of local-level responses faced with the precepts of globalisation. The task consists of highlighting forms of social innovation that are emerging in geographic and cultural areas that cannot be assimilated within the political mainstream.